UK DEATHS IN THE FIRST WORLD WAR
1914-1919

Name Birth Place Residence Death Date Age Enlistment Location Rank Regiment Battalion Number Comments/ Additional Information Cemetery/Memorial Name
Alfred Sterry not stated Abergavenny Mon 27 Sep 1918 not known not stated Private Northumberland Fusiliers 1st Battalion 45028 n/a VIS-EN-ARTOIS MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]
Arthur Daniel Sterry Lowestoft Lowestoft 23 Apr 1917 not known not stated Private Suffolk Regiment 4th Battalion 202937 Formerly 6525 Suffolk Regt ARRAS MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]
Esmond Jack Sterry Lowestoft Suffolk Lowestoft Suffolk 21 Mar 1918 20 not stated Sapper Corps of Royal Engineers 208th Field Coy. 84668 Son of John Sterry, of 7, Grosvenor Rd., Lowestoft. ARRAS MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]
Francis Samuel Sterry Bristol Bristol 22 Aug 1917 31 Brislington Glos. Private Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry 2/1st Bucks Battalion 285122 Formerly 243181 Hants Regt. Son of Charles and Elizabeth Sterry, of 3, Eldon Terrace, Windmill Hill, Bedminster, Bristol; husband of Emily Sterry, of 48, Winchester Rd., Brislington, Bristol. TYNE COT MEMORIAL [Zonnebeke, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium]
Frank Sterry Boxford Suffolk Boxford 26 Aug 1917 26 not stated L/Corporal Suffolk Regiment 11th Battalion 24676 Son of Robert and Eleanor Sterry, of Swan St., Boxford, Suffolk. HARGICOURT BRITISH CEMETERY [Aisne, France]
Francis Sterry not known not known 01 Oct 1916 not known not known Private King's Own Scottish Borderers 7th/8th Bn. 18217 n/a THIEPVAL MEMORIAL [Somme, France]
George Sterry Saxmundham Suffolk Ipswich 25 Apr 1915 not known not stated Driver Royal Horse Artillery and Royal Field Artillery 96th Bty. 19th Bde. 80992 n/a YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL [Ieper, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium]
George Sterry Newmarket Suffolk Kingston-On-Thames 12 Mar 1915 not known Newmarket Private Border Regiment 2nd Battalion 8999 Formerly 1245 Northumberland Fus. LE TOURET MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]
Harry Sterry Boxford Suffolk Arundel 24 Apr 1917 not known Arundel Private Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) 13th Battalion 41847 n/a ARRAS MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]
Henry F Sterry Longhope Glos. Rhymney Mon. 16 Jul 1916 not known not stated Private Welsh Regiment 8th Battalion 33668 n/a AMARA WAR CEMETERY [Iraq]
Harold Herbert Sterry not known not known 26 Oct 1917 not known not stated Able Seaman Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Anson Bn. R.N. Div. Wales Z/312 Awards: M M TYNE COT MEMORIAL [Zonnebeke, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium]
John Joshua Sterry St. Mary's Southampton Winchester 17 Jan 1915 not known Southampton Private Hampshire Regiment 1st Battalion 5861 Brother of Mrs. A. Loveday, of 78, St. Mary St., Southampton. LANCASHIRE COTTAGE CEMETERY [Comines-Warneton, Hainaut, Belgium]
John William George Sterry Walworth Surrey  London 12 Feb 1915 not known Walworth Surrey Private Welsh Regiment 1st Battalion 10207 n/a BOULOGNE EASTERN CEMETERY [Pas de Calais, France]
Leslie Frank Bullock Sterry Longhope Glos Bristol 09 Nov 1916 not known not stated Private Gloucestershire Regiment 1/4th (City of Bristol) Battalion (T.F.) 20229 n/a MARTINPUICH BRITISH CEMETERY [Pas de Calais, France]
Miles John Sterry East Dean Glos. Gloucester Glos. 27 Oct 1918 not known not stated Sergeant Queen's Own (Royal West Kent Regiment) 7th Battalion G/21501 Formerly 5813 Glos. Regt. Awards: D C M, M M and Bar DELSAUX FARM CEMETERY, BEUGNY [Pas de Calais, France]
Robert Sterry Botesdale Suffolk Huntingdon 11 Apr 1917 30 Huntingdon Private Bedfordshire Regiment 2nd Battalion 18591 Son of Mrs. Mary Ann Sterry, of Front St., Botesdale, Diss. ST. MARTIN CALVAIRE BRITISH CEMETERY, ST. MARTIN-SUR-COJEUL [Pas de Calais, France]
T Sterry not known not known 29 Jun 1916 not known not known Private East Surrey Regiment 10th Bn. not known n/a DOVER (ST. JAMES'S) CEMETERY [Kent, UK]
Victor Sterry Lowestoft Lowestoft 06 Nov 1917 30 not stated Sergeant Suffolk Regiment 15th Battalion 15531 Husband of Mrs. L. E. Palmer (formerly Sterry), of 63, Worthing Rd., Lowestoft. BEERSHEBA WAR CEMETERY [Israel]
Walter Daniel Sterry Hucclecote  Glos Gloucester 30 Aug 1918 20 not stated Private Prince Albert's (Somerset Light Infantry) 1st Battalion 38500 Formerly 39653 Devonshire Regiment. Son of Daniel William and Frances Sterrv, of 184, Barton St., Gloucester. VIS-EN-ARTOIS BRITISH CEMETERY, HAUCOURT [Pas de Calais, France]
Wilfred [or William] Joseph Sterry Lowestoft Ipswich 07 Feb 1916 21 not stated Private Suffolk Regiment 4th Battalion 1356 n/a LOWESTOFT (BECCLES ROAD) CEMETERY [Suffolk, UK]
William Sterry Limehouse Middlesex Poplar Middlesex 15 Sep 1916 not known Limehouse Middlesex Private Leicestershire Regiment 1st Battalion 20210 n/a THIEPVAL MEMORIAL [Somme, France]
William Sterry Lowestoft Lowestoft 01 Jul 1916 not known Lowestoft Private Essex Regiment 10th Battalion 14652 n/a THIEPVAL MEMORIAL [Somme, France]
William Sterry not known not known 04 Sep 1916 not known not known Serjeant Norfolk Regiment 1st Bn. 5653 n/a THIEPVAL MEMORIAL [Somme, France]


Cemetery Locations and Historical Information

AMARA WAR CEMETERY [Iraq]

Whilst the current climate of political instability persists it is not possible for the Commission to manage or maintain its cemeteries and memorials located within Iraq. Alternative arrangements for commemoration have therefore been implemented and a two volume Roll of Honour listing all casualties buried and commemorated in Iraq has been produced. These volumes are on display at the Commission's Head Office in Maidenhead and are available for the public to view.

Amara was occupied by the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force on 3 June 1915 and it immediately became a hospital centre. The accommodation for medical units on both banks of the Tigris was greatly increased during 1916 and in April 1917, seven general hospitals and some smaller units were stationed there. Amara War Cemetery contains 4,621 burials of the First World War, more than 3,000 of which were brought into the cemetery after the Armistice. 925 of the graves are unidentified. In 1933, all of the headstones were removed from this cemetery when it was discovered that salts in the soil were causing them to deteriorate. Instead a screen wall was erected with the names of those buried in the cemetery engraved upon it. Plot XXV is a Collective Grave, the individual burial places within this are not known. There are also seven non-war graves in the cemetery.

ARRAS MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]

The Arras Memorial is in the Faubourg-d'Amiens Cemetery, which is in the Boulevard du General de Gaulle in the western part of the town of Arras. The cemetery is near the Citadel, approximately 2 kms due west of the railway station.

The French handed over Arras to Commonwealth forces in the spring of 1916 and the system of tunnels upon which the town is built were used and developed in preparation for the major offensive planned for April 1917. The Commonwealth section of the FAUBOURG D'AMIENS CEMETERY was begun in March 1916, behind the French military cemetery established earlier. It continued to be used by field ambulances and fighting units until November 1918. The cemetery was enlarged after the Armistice when graves were brought in from the battlefields and from two smaller cemeteries in the vicinity. The cemetery contains 2,651 Commonwealth burials of the First World War. In addition, there are 30 war graves of other nationalities, most of them German. During the Second World War, Arras was occupied by United Kingdom forces headquarters until the town was evacuated on 23 May 1940. Arras then remained in German hands until retaken by Commonwealth and Free French forces on 1 September 1944. The cemetery contains seven Commonwealth burials of the Second World War. The graves in the French military cemetery were removed after the First World War to other burial grounds and the land they had occupied was used for the construction of the Arras Memorial and Arras Flying Services Memorial. The ARRAS MEMORIAL commemorates almost 35,000 servicemen from the United Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand who died in the Arras sector between the spring of 1916 and 7 August 1918, the eve of the Advance to Victory, and have no known grave. The most conspicuous events of this period were the Arras offensive of April-May 1917, and the German attack in the spring of 1918. Canadian and Australian servicemen killed in these operations are commemorated by memorials at Vimy and Villers-Bretonneux. A separate memorial remembers those killed in the Battle of Cambrai in 1917. The ARRAS FLYING SERVICES MEMORIAL commemorates nearly 1,000 airmen of the Royal Naval Air Service, the Royal Flying Corps, and the Royal Air Force, either by attachment from other arms of the forces of the Commonwealth or by original enlistment, who were killed on the whole Western Front and who have no known grave. Both cemetery and memorial were designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, with sculpture by Sir William Reid Dick. The memorial was unveiled by Lord Trenchard, Marshal of the Royal Air Force on the 31 July 1932 (originally it had been scheduled for 15 May, but due to the sudden death of French President Doumer, as a mark of respect, the ceremony was postponed until July).

BEERSHEBA WAR CEMETERY [Israel]

Beersheba is a southern town on the edge of the Negev Desert, 75 kilometres south-west of Jerusalem. The Cemetery is situated on the south-west of Beersheba town. On arrival in the town via route 40, continue on until you reach a large junction with a shopping complex on your left. Turn right onto road No. 25, sign-posted Hazerim. Follow this road for 2 kilometres, turning left at the traffic lights opposite the high rise blocks, sign-posted Hazerim. The cemetery will be found on the left. Owing to the one way road system, you must do a complete tour to reach the entrance so continue and turn left at the next set of traffic lights. Then take the next left onto Harzfeld Street. At the end of this street, turn left and the cemetery entrance is on your left.

By October 1917, General Allenby's force had been entrenched in front of a strong Turkish position along the Gaza-Beersheba road for some months, but they were now ready to launch an attack with Beersheba as its first objective. On 31 October, the attack was carried out by the XXth Corps (10th, 53rd, 60th and 74th Divisions) on the west, and the Desert Mounted Corps on the east. That evening the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade charged over the Turkish trenches into the town. The cemetery was made immediately on the fall of the town, remaining in use until July 1918, by which time 139 burials had been made It was greatly increased after the Armistice when burials were brought in from a number of scattered sites and small burial grounds. The cemetery now contains 1,241 Commonwealth burials of the First World War, 67 of them unidentified.

BOULOGNE EASTERN CEMETERY [Pas de Calais, France]

Boulogne-sur-Mer is a large Channel port. Boulogne Eastern Cemetery, one of the town cemeteries, lies in the district of St Martin Boulogne, just beyond the eastern (Chateau) corner of the Citadel (Haute-Ville). The cemetery is a large civil cemetery, split in two by the Rue de Dringhem, just south of the main road (RN42) to St Omer. The Commonwealth War Graves plot is located down the western edge of the southern section of the cemetery, with an entrance in the Rue de Dringhen. Car parking is available along the Rue de Dringhen.

Boulogne, was one of the three base ports most extensively used by the Commonwealth armies on the Western Front throughout the First World War. It was closed and cleared on the 27 August 1914 when the Allies were forced to fall back ahead of the German advance, but was opened again in October and from that month to the end of the war, Boulogne and Wimereux formed one of the chief hospital areas. Until June 1918, the dead from the hospitals at Boulogne itself were buried in the Cimetiere de L'Est, one of the town cemeteries, the Commonwealth graves forming a long, narrow strip along the right hand edge of the cemetery. In the spring of 1918, it was found that space was running short in the Eastern Cemetery in spite of repeated extensions to the south, and the site of the new cemetery at Terlincthun was chosen. During the Second World War, hospitals were again posted to Boulogne for a short time in May 1940. The town was taken by the Germans at the end of that month and remained in their hands until recaptured by the Canadians on 22 September 1944. Boulogne Eastern Cemetery contains 5,577 Commonwealth burials of the First World War and 224 from the Second World War. The Commonwealth plots were designed by Charles Holden.

DELSAUX FARM CEMETERY, BEUGNY [Pas de Calais, France]

This cemetery is near the village of Beugny, 19 kilometres south-west of Cambrai on the Bapaume-Cambrai road (RN30). The RD20 Haplincourt/Roquiny forms a T junction with the RN30 at the Mairie in Beugny. The Cemetery is signposted at this point and is 1 kilometre from the T junction leaving Beugny on the RD20 in the direction of Haplincourt. The cemetery is on the left adjacent to the RD20.

Delsaux Farm was a point on the German defensive system known as the Beugny-Ytres line, which was reached by Commonwealth troops on 18 March 1917, and passed on the following day. The farm was lost on 23 March 1918 after the gallant defence of Beugny by the 9th Welsh Regiment and their withdrawal, but it was retaken by the 5th Division on 2 September 1918, and on the next day the same division occupied Beugny village. After their advance in March 1918, the Germans made a cemetery (Beugny Military Cemetery No.18) at the cross-roads, and in it buried 103 Commonwealth and 82 German dead. The site was extended in October - November 1918 by the 29th and 46th Casualty Clearing Stations, which came to Delsaux Farm and made the present cemetery. A little later, the German graves of March 1918 were removed and the 103 Commonwealth dead reburied in Plot I, Row J, Plot II, Row A, and Plot III, Rows B, C and D. The rest of the cemetery was made when graves were later brought in from the battlefield. Delsaux Farm Cemetery contains 495 burials and commemorations of the First World War. 61 of the burials are unidentified and 32 others, identified as a whole but not individually, are marked with headstones inscribed "Buried near this spot". The cemetery was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.

DOVER (ST. JAMES'S) CEMETERY [Kent, UK]

During the First World War, Dover was a port of embarkation for troops bound for the Western Front and between August 1914 and August 1919 some 1,300,000 Commonwealth sick and wounded were landed there. The port was bombed in 1915 and again in August 1916. There are 373 identified burials of the 1914-1918 war here. In addition there are 19 unidentified burials, 9 of whom can be named as victims of the Zeebrugge Raid, and these 9 are inscribed on a Special Memorial on the Cross of Sacrifice in the Zeebrugge Plot. In 1940, Dover was the headquarters for the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk and nearly 200,000 of the 366,000 British and Allied troops brought back during the operation were landed there.Throughout the war Dover was a particular target for the long range guns on the French coast and between September 1939 and May 1945 there were no less than 742 attacks by air raid and shelling. Most of the 356 Second World War burials are contained in a special war graves plot at the far end of the cemetery. The plot, know as the Dunkirk plot, contains many graves from the Dunkirk operation. 22 of these burials are unidentified. There are also 8 Foreign National war burials and 3 non war service burials in the cemetery.

HARGICOURT BRITISH CEMETERY [Aisne, France]

Hargicourt is a village about 16 kilometres north-west of St Quentin and about 3 kilometres west of the main road from St Quentin to Cambrai. The Cemetery is at the western end of the village, on the south side of the road to Peronne.

Hargicourt was occupied by British troops in April 1917, lost on the 21st March 1918, and recaptured by Australian troops on the 18th September 1918. Hargicourt British Cemetery was begun in May 1917, and used by fighting units until March 1918; some further burials were made in September and October 1918, and three British graves were brought in after the Armistice from HARGICOURT COMMUNAL CEMETERY GERMAN EXTENSION. It was largely used by the 34th Division, under the name of Hargicourt Quarry Cemetery (derived from the quarry across the railway line). There are now over 300, 1914-18 war casualties commemorated in this cemetery. Of these, over 30 are unidentified and a special memorial is erected to a United Kingdom soldier known to be buried among them. The British Cemetery covers an area of 2,151 square metres and is enclosed by a flint and stone wall.

LANCASHIRE COTTAGE CEMETERY [Comines-Warneton, Hainaut, Belgium]

Lancashire Cottage Cemetery is located 13.5 Kms south of Ieper town centre on a road leading from the N365 connecting Ieper to Wijtschate, Mesen, Ploegsteert and on to Armentieres. From Ieper town centre the Rijselsestraat runs from the market square, through the Lille Gate (Rijselpoort) and directly over the crossroads with the Ieper ring road. The road name then changes to the Rijselseweg. On reaching the village of Ploegsteert the first left hand turning leads onto the rue de Ploegsteert. The cemetery lies 1 Km along the rue de Ploegsteert on the right hand side of the road.

Lancashire Cottage Cemetery was begun by the 1st East Lancashire (who have 84 graves in it) and the 1st Hampshire (who have 56) in November 1914. It was used as a front line cemetery until March 1916 and occasionally later. The cemetery was in German hands from 10 April to 29 September 1918 and they made a few burials in it during that spring and summer. The cemetery contains 256 Commonwealth burials of the First World War. There are also 13 German war graves. The cemetery was designed by Charles Holden.

LE TOURET MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]

Le Touret Memorial is located at the east end of Le Touret Military Cemetery, on the south side of the Bethune-Armentieres main road. From Bethune follow the signs for Armentieres until you are on the D171. Continue on this road through Essars and Le Touret village. Approximately 1 kilometre after Le Touret village and about 5 kilometres before you reach the intersection with the D947, Estaires to La Bassee road, the Cemetery lies on the right hand side of the road. The Memorial takes the form of a loggia surrounding an open rectangular court. The court is enclosed by three solid walls and on the eastern side by a colonnade. East of the colonnade is a wall and the colonnade and wall are prolonged northwards (to the road) and southwards, forming a long gallery. Small pavilions mark the ends of the gallery and the western corners of the court.

The Memorial in Le Touret Military Cemetery, Richebourg-l'Avoue, is one of those erected by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission to record the names of the officers and men who fell in the Great War and whose graves are not known. It serves the area enclosed on the North by the river Lys and a line drawn from Estaires to Fournes, and on the South by the old Southern boundary of the First Army about Grenay; and it covers the period from the arrival of the II Corps in Flanders in 1914 to the eve of the Battle of Loos. It does not include the names of officers and men of Canadian or Indian regiments; they are found on the Memorials at Vimy and Neuve-Chapelle. The names of those commemorated are listed on panels set into the walls of the court and the gallery, arranged by Regiment, Rank and alphabetically by surname within the rank. Over 13,000 names are listed on the memorial of men who fell in this area before 25 September 1915 and who have no known grave. The memorial was designed by J.R. Truelove and unveiled by Lord Tyrrell on 22 March 1930.

LOWESTOFT (BECCLES ROAD) CEMETERY [Suffolk, UK]

During the 1914-1918 War, Lowestoft was a trawler base with a Port Mine-sweeping Officer in command; and during the 1939-1945 War, was the central Depot for the Royal Naval Patrol Service, which was developed from the pre-war Royal Naval Reserve Trawler Section. The cemetery was begun in 1885 and contains war graves of both world wars. The 1914-1918 burials are mainly in Plots 12, 13 and 14 on the western side. After the war, a Cross of Sacrifice was erected on an island site close to these plots, in honour of all the servicemen buried in the cemetery. Most of the 1939-1945 graves are in one or other of four War Graves Plots, three of which are in the western part of the cemetery and one to the east of the main entrance. The remainder are scattered in other parts of the cemetery. There are 95 Commonwealth burials of the 1914-1918 war. There are 122 burials of the 1939-1945 war commemorated in this site. Of these 11 are unidentified seamen of the Merchant Navy. There are 11 German war burials here, 1 of which is an unidentified airman and 2 non-war service burials.

MARTINPUICH BRITISH CEMETERY [Pas de Calais, France]

Martinpuich is a village in the Department of the Pas-de-Calais and is located 9 kilometres south-west of Bapaume, 1 kilometre off the D929. On exiting the village in the direction of Longueval, D6, a CWGC signpost indicates the direction of Martinpuich British Cemetery, situated 100 metres off the road to the right.

Martinpuich was captured by the 15th (Scottish) Division on 15 September 1916, lost in April 1918, and retaken in August 1918. Martinpuich British Cemetery was begun in November 1916 and used by fighting units and field ambulances until June 1917, and again at the end of August 1918. In 1931 the bodies of ten soldiers buried by the Germans were found in the communal cemetery, and moved into the British Cemetery. The cemetery now contains 115 burials and commemorations of the First World War. Nine of the burials are unidentified and four graves destroyed by shell fire in 1918 are represented by special memorials.

ST. MARTIN CALVAIRE BRITISH CEMETERY, ST. MARTIN-SUR-COJEUL [Pas de Calais, France]

St. Martin-sur-Cojeul is a village about 8 kilometres south-south-east of Arras on the road from Henin to Heninel, just west of the motorway to Lille. The Cemetery is to the south of the village.

The village of St. Martin-sur-Cojeul was taken by the 30th Division on 9 April 1917. It was lost in March 1918 but retaken in the following August. St. Martin Calvaire British Cemetery was named from a calvary which was destroyed during the war. It was begun by units of the 30th Division in April 1917 and used until March 1918. Plot II was made in August and September 1918. The cemetery contains 228 Commonwealth burials of the First World War, five of them unidentified. There are also three German graves within the cemetery. The cemetery was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens.

THIEPVAL MEMORIAL [Somme, France]

The Thiepval Memorial will be found on the D73, next to the village of Thiepval, off the main Bapaume to Albert road (D929). Each year a major ceremony is held at the memorial on 1 July.

On 1 July 1916, supported by a French attack to the south, thirteen divisions of Commonwealth forces launched an offensive on a line from north of Gommecourt to Maricourt. Despite a preliminary bombardment lasting seven days, the German defences were barely touched and the attack met unexpectedly fierce resistance. Losses were catastrophic and with only minimal advances on the southern flank, the initial attack was a failure. In the following weeks, huge resources of manpower and equipment were deployed in an attempt to exploit the modest successes of the first day. However, the German Army resisted tenaciously and repeated attacks and counter attacks meant a major battle for every village, copse and farmhouse gained. At the end of September, Thiepval was finally captured. The village had been an original objective of 1 July. Attacks north and east continued throughout October and into November in increasingly difficult weather conditions. The Battle of the Somme finally ended on 18 November with the onset of winter. In the spring of 1917, the German forces fell back to their newly prepared defences, the Hindenburg Line, and there were no further significant engagements in the Somme sector until the Germans mounted their major offensive in March 1918. The Thiepval Memorial, the Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, bears the names of more than 72,000 officers and men of the United Kingdom and South African forces who died in the Somme sector before 20 March 1918 and have no known grave. Over 90% of those commemorated died between July and November 1916. The memorial also serves as an Anglo-French Battle Memorial in recognition of the joint nature of the 1916 offensive and a small cemetery containing equal numbers of Commonwealth and French graves lies at the foot of the memorial. The memorial, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, was built between 1928 and 1932 and unveiled by the Prince of Wales, in the presence of the President of France, on 1 August 1932 (originally scheduled for 16 May but due to the death of French President Doumer the ceremony was postponed until August). The dead of other Commonwealth countries, who died on the Somme and have no known graves, are commemorated on national memorials elsewhere.

TYNE COT MEMORIAL [Zonnebeke, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium]

The Tyne Cot Memorial to the Missing forms the north-eastern boundary of Tyne Cot Cemetery, which is located 9 kilometres north east of Ieper town centre, on the Tynecotstraat, a road leading from the Zonnebeekseweg (N332). The names of those from United Kingdom units are inscribed on Panels arranged by Regiment under their respective Ranks. The names of those from New Zealand units are inscribed on panels within the New Zealand Memorial Apse located at the centre of the Memorial.

The Tyne Cot Memorial is one of four memorials to the missing in Belgian Flanders which cover the area known as the Ypres Salient. Broadly speaking, the Salient stretched from Langemarck in the north to the northern edge in Ploegsteert Wood in the south, but it varied in area and shape throughout the war. The Salient was formed during the First Battle of Ypres in October and November 1914, when a small British Expeditionary Force succeeded in securing the town before the onset of winter, pushing the German forces back to the Passchendaele Ridge. The Second Battle of Ypres began in April 1915 when the Germans released poison gas into the Allied lines north of Ypres. This was the first time gas had been used by either side and the violence of the attack forced an Allied withdrawal and a shortening of the line of defence. There was little more significant activity on this front until 1917, when in the Third Battle of Ypres an offensive was mounted by Commonwealth forces to divert German attention from a weakened French front further south. The initial attempt in June to dislodge the Germans from the Messines Ridge was a complete success, but the main assault north-eastward, which began at the end of July, quickly became a dogged struggle against determined opposition and the rapidly deteriorating weather. The campaign finally came to a close in November with the capture of Passchendaele. The German offensive of March 1918 met with some initial success, but was eventually checked and repulsed in a combined effort by the Allies in September. The battles of the Ypres Salient claimed many lives on both sides and it quickly became clear that the commemoration of members of the Commonwealth forces with no known grave would have to be divided between several different sites. The site of the Menin Gate was chosen because of the hundreds of thousands of men who passed through it on their way to the battlefields. It commemorates those of all Commonwealth nations, except New Zealand, who died in the Salient, in the case of United Kingdom casualties before 16 August 1917 (with some exceptions). Those United Kingdom and New Zealand servicemen who died after that date are named on the memorial at Tyne Cot, a site which marks the furthest point reached by Commonwealth forces in Belgium until nearly the end of the war. Other New Zealand casualties are commemorated on memorials at Buttes New British Cemetery and Messines Ridge British Cemetery. The TYNE COT MEMORIAL now bears the names of almost 35,000 officers and men whose graves are not known. The memorial, designed by Sir Herbert Baker with sculpture by Joseph Armitage and F.V. Blundstone, was unveiled by Sir Gilbert Dyett 20 June 1927. The memorial forms the north-eastern boundary of TYNE COT CEMETERY, which was established around a captured German blockhouse or pill-box used as an advanced dressing station. The original battlefield cemetery of 343 graves was greatly enlarged after the Armistice when remains were brought in from the battlefields of Passchendaele and Langemarck, and from a few small burial grounds. It is now the largest Commonwealth war cemetery in the world in terms of burials. At the suggestion of King George V, who visited the cemetery in 1922, the Cross of Sacrifice was placed on the original large pill-box. There are three other pill-boxes in the cemetery. There are now 11,956 Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War buried or commemorated in Tyne Cot Cemetery, 8,369 of these are unidentified. The cemetery was designed by Sir Herbert Baker.

VIS-EN-ARTOIS BRITISH CEMETERY, HAUCOURT [Pas de Calais, France]

Vis-en-Artois and Haucourt are villages in the Department of the Pas-de-Calais, on the road from Arras to Cambrai. The Cemetery is at the north side of the main road between the two villages.

Vis-En-Artois and Haucourt were taken by the Canadian Corps on 27 August 1918. The cemetery was begun immediately afterwards and was used by fighting units and field ambulances until the middle of October. It consisted originally of 430 graves (in Plots I and II) of which 297 were Canadian and 55 belonged to the 2nd Duke of Wellington's Regiment. It was increased after the Armistice by the concentration of graves from the battlefields of April-June 1917, August and September 1918, and from the smaller cemeteries in the neighbourhood, including:- BOIS-DU-SART BRITISH CEMETERY, PELVES, at the North-Western angle of the Bois-du-Sart, which contained the graves of ten soldiers and airmen from the United Kingdom and nine soldiers from Canada who fell in August and September 1918. DURY GERMAN CEMETERY was on the South-East side of Dury village, a little South of the road to Saudemont. It contained the graves of four British and 49 German soldiers. ECOURT-ST. QUENTIN GERMAN CEMETERY on the East side of the road to Lecluse. It contained the graves of 16 soldiers from the United Kingdom. ETAING COMMUNAL CEMETERY GERMAN EXTENSION, which contained the graves of six soldiers and airmen from the United Kingdom, who fell in 1917 and 1918, 331 German soldiers (including some who fell in August 1914), and two Russian prisoners. LECLUSE GERMAN CEMETERY, on the West side of the village, contained the graves of 476 German soldiers, eleven soldiers from the United Kingdom who fell in 1917, and one Russian prisoner. MONCHY QUARRY CEMETERY was in a quarry 800 metres South-East of Monchy-le-Preux. It contained the graves of 22 soldiers from the United Kingdom who fell in July 1917. PELVES CANADIAN CEMETERY, nearly 1.6 kilometes due South of the village, contained the graves of 39 soldiers from Canada who fell in August and September 1918. PELVES COMMUNAL CEMETERY GERMAN EXTENSION, which contained the graves of two soldiers from the United Kingdom who fell in 1917. RUMAUCOURT GERMAN CEMETERY, on the Southern edge of the village, which contained the graves of 21 soldiers from the United Kingdom and six from Australia. SAILLY-EN-OSTREVENT COMMUNAL CEMETERY, which was destroyed by shell-fire, contained the graves of three soldiers from the United Kingdom (two of which were recovered). VIS-EN-ARTOIS COMMUNAL CEMETERY GERMAN EXTENSION, which was very badly shelled, contained the graves of 621 German soldiers, 14 from the United Kingdom, eight French and five Russian. The cemetery now contains 2,369 burials and commemorations of the First World War. 1,458 of the burials are unidentified but there are special memorials to eight casualties known or believed to be buried among them. Other special memorials commemorate four soldiers buried in other cemeteries whose graves could not be found on concentration. The cemetery was designed by J R Truelove.

VIS-EN-ARTOIS MEMORIAL [Pas de Calais, France]

Vis-en-Artois and Haucourt are villages on the straight main road from Arras to Cambrai about 10 kilometres south-east of Arras. The Memorial is the back drop to the Vis-en-Artois British Cemetery, which is west of Haucourt on the north side of the main road.

This Memorial bears the names of over 9,000 men who fell in the period from 8 August 1918 to the date of the Armistice in the Advance to Victory in Picardy and Artois, between the Somme and Loos, and who have no known grave. They belonged to the forces of Great Britain and Ireland and South Africa; the Canadian, Australian and New Zealand forces being commemorated on other memorials to the missing. The Memorial consists of a screen wall in three parts. The middle part of the screen wall is concave and carries stone panels on which names are carved. It is 26 feet high flanked by pylons 70 feet high. The Stone of Remembrance stands exactly between the pylons and behind it, in the middle of the screen, is a group in relief representing St George and the Dragon. The flanking parts of the screen wall are also curved and carry stone panels carved with names. Each of them forms the back of a roofed colonnade; and at the far end of each is a small building. The memorial was designed by J.R. Truelove, with sculpture by Ernest Gillick. It was unveiled by the Rt. Hon. Thomas Shaw on 4 August 1930.

YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL [Ieper, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium]

Ypres (now Ieper) is a town in the Province of West Flanders. The Memorial is situated at the eastern side of the town on the road to Menin (Menen) and Courtrai (Kortrijk). Each night at 8 pm the traffic is stopped at the Menin Gate while members of the local Fire Brigade sound the Last Post in the roadway under the Memorial's arches.

The Menin Gate is one of four memorials to the missing in Belgian Flanders which cover the area known as the Ypres Salient. Broadly speaking, the Salient stretched from Langemarck in the north to the northern edge in Ploegsteert Wood in the south, but it varied in area and shape throughout the war. The Salient was formed during the First Battle of Ypres in October and November 1914, when a small British Expeditionary Force succeeded in securing the town before the onset of winter, pushing the German forces back to the Passchendaele Ridge. The Second Battle of Ypres began in April 1915 when the Germans released poison gas into the Allied lines north of Ypres. This was the first time gas had been used by either side and the violence of the attack forced an Allied withdrawal and a shortening of the line of defence. There was little more significant activity on this front until 1917, when in the Third Battle of Ypres an offensive was mounted by Commonwealth forces to divert German attention from a weakened French front further south. The initial attempt in June to dislodge the Germans from the Messines Ridge was a complete success, but the main assault north-eastward, which began at the end of July, quickly became a dogged struggle against determined opposition and the rapidly deteriorating weather. The campaign finally came to a close in November with the capture of Passchendaele. The German offensive of March 1918 met with some initial success, but was eventually checked and repulsed in a combined effort by the Allies in September. The battles of the Ypres Salient claimed many lives on both sides and it quickly became clear that the commemoration of members of the Commonwealth forces with no known grave would have to be divided between several different sites. The site of the Menin Gate was chosen because of the hundreds of thousands of men who passed through it on their way to the battlefields. It commemorates those of all Commonwealth nations, except New Zealand, who died in the Salient, in the case of United Kingdom casualties before 16 August 1917 (with some exceptions). Those United Kingdom and New Zealand servicemen who died after that date are named on the memorial at Tyne Cot, a site which marks the furthest point reached by Commonwealth forces in Belgium until nearly the end of the war. Other New Zealand casualties are commemorated on memorials at Buttes New British Cemetery and Messines Ridge British Cemetery. The YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL now bears the names of more than 54,000 officers and men whose graves are not known. The memorial, designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield with sculpture by Sir William Reid-Dick, was unveiled by Lord Plumer 24 July 1927.

Sources:
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
UK, Soldiers Died in the Great War, 1914-1919 [Ancestry.com]